Jozef Bambang Tri Joga*)
Joko Nurkamto**)
*) Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang
Jl. Prof.H.Sudarto, SH, Tembalang,Kotak Pos 6199/SMS Semarang 50061
**) Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Ingggris, Universitas Sebelas Maret
Jl. Ir.Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Surakarta

Fokus penelitian ini pada pengembangan model yang baru dan sesuai untuk pengajaran bahasa Inggris di SD.  Oleh karenanya, penelitian ini menggunakan model Penelitian dan Pengembangan, cara yang dikembangkan Borg dan Gall (1983).  Dari 10 siklus yang merupakan langkah-langkah yang berkelanjutan, Sukamadinata (2008: 184-191) membuatnya menjadi skala Penelitian dan Pengembangan yang lebih singkat, hanya dengan tiga tahapan: 1) tahap eksplorasi, 2) tahap pengembangan prototipe, dan 3) tahap validasi.
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah 1) mengetahui kualitas model yang sekarang digunakan dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris di SD seperti yang direfleksikan dalam analisa profil, 2) mengetahui kebutuhan akan model yang baru, 3) mengetahui bagaimana model pengajaran berbasis siswa aktif dikembangkan berdasar analisis kebutuhan, 4) mengetaqhui bagaimana implementasi model berbasis siswa aktif di SD kelas 4.
Data dicari melalui pengamatan kelas, kuesioner, wawancara mendalam, dan analisis dokumen.  Dalam rangka menganalisis data yang terkumpul tersebut, digunakan metoda perbandingan yang konstan.  Itu merupakan pedekatan analisis data kualitative, yang bisa digabungkan dengan prosedur analitis, prosedur pengkodean yang jelas, dan gaya dari teori pengembangan guna mengembangkan grounded theory.  Guna pengembangan model yang baru, penelitian ini mengaplikasikan 1) pendekatan kualitative (pada tahap Eksplorasi), 2) konsultasi dengan pakar dan FGD (pada tahap pengembangan model dan implementasi di kelas), dan 3) validasi pakar tentang buku petunjuk (pada tahap validasi)

Kata Kunci:  model yang ada, pengamatan kelas, wawancara mendalam, analisis kebutuhan

The idea of the teaching of English to young learners of Elementary School (ES for short) started quite a long time ago. There were both agreement and disagreement aired by experts on this matter.  Some researchers had analyzed the readiness of all components (the human resource, the facilities, the finance and other components of the program) - which were not the same to all schools, the minimum criteria for the authors of English textbooks to write the materials in line with the requirements relevant to the users, teaching materials which did not represent socio - cultural aspects with the consideration of basic thinking, content of the materials, organization of the materials, development of the materials, presentation and evaluation (Retmono, 1992; Kasihani, 2004; Faridi, 2008). 
The recommendations coming from the researchers were that the government upgrade the quality of teaching English at Junior High through the teachers’ mastery of English.  Teaching English, at the early age would, otherwise, confuse the students who were trying to master Bahasa Indonesia, the national language.  If at all possible, however,  teaching English to the students of years  IV, V and VI of ES should be made simple, such as through games, songs and other fun activities. 
Minimum criteria should be stated for the authors of English textbooks to write the materials in line with the requirements relevant to the users. English should be taught interestingly by   (1)  the application of varied practical techniques, such as songs, stories, games with the appropriate teaching media such as flash cards, puppets, etc., (2)  upgrading the teachers’ mastery of English for children, especially those who do not have English educational background through workshops and trainings, (3) socializing  guidance, teaching approaches/methods to English ES teachers,  (4) holding a national gathering to reconstruct the  English lessons for ES so as to achieve the minimum requirement standard of teaching, such as  topics, reference, activities and so on.
Teacher should concentrate on preparing the materials in ES, which was claimed did not represent socio cultural aspects with the consideration of basic thinking, content of the materials, organization of the materials, development of the materials, presentation and evaluation.  Several issues may be established, such as (1) holding special trainings to prepare teachers of English to ES, (2) working together with LPTK to increase the teaching knowledge and English mastery of the teachers, (3)  monitoring and evaluating the designed teaching material model to get the tested model to be the resource material to develop English teaching and learning in ES.

Table 1.
Comparative Findings of Previous Studies
RETMONO (1999)
SUYANTO (2004)
FARIDI (2008)
Good facilities should be provided for English teaching in ES
Textbook should  be composed by certified writers
Textbook should contain local values and wisdom
Upgrading Junior High English Teachers’ teaching capability
The period of teaching English would be longer; teaching should be done interestingly
The organization is based on:  Building Knowledge of the Field, Modeling of Text, Joint Construction of Text and Independent Construction of Text
Teachers as good models
Teaching should be done in varied practical techniques
The four skills are treated equally
Not to teach English too early to kids
The mastery of English  should be upgraded
Evaluation in accordance with the learned skills
English Teaching should be fun
Socialize the components of English Teaching material to ES teachers
English mastery of the teachers should be upgraded
Flexible not rigid law on teaching English in ES
Reconstruct the lecture material of EYL in LPTK
Special training for preparing teachers for TEYL
English mastery is a must for the teachers

Insert TEYL in the curriculum of LPTK

         Source: Retmono (1992), Suyanto (2004), Faridi(2008)

With respect to the constraints of teaching English at ES, Indonesian government, introduced English on the basis of the 1994 curriculum for the ES. It is in accordance with the policy of Department of Education and Culture of R I No 0487/1992 Chapter VIII stating ES may have additional extra lessons in their curriculum as long as they do not contrast to the objectives of national education. The policy is, then, supported by the Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 060/U/1993 dated 25 February 1993 enabling English Language to be put as a local content at Year 4 of ES.
The main purpose of teaching English in ES is to give the communication skill especially spoken English in simple sentences.  An English teacher at ES is required to include the four language skills while carrying out every step of teaching. In other words, teaching English at ES has to be integrated in such a way that no single skill is exclusively presented. This is not an easy task, considering that most of the ES teachers still maintain the tradition of ‘teacher-centered approach’.
However, without heeding of the success or failure of English teaching and learning at ES, the Central Government of Indonesia is going to issue a new curricula for basic and high school education, totally dismantling the old curricula as of 2013-2014 academic year in which English is stripped off from ES.  In this respect, the current study (this dissertation) shall go on. The researcher is still confident that the findings are still relevant to the need of English education for young learners.
Unless it is stipulated otherwise, English will still be offered at possibly Private ES as intra-curricular activities in addition to Play Group, Kindergarten, Toddlers, and some other bilingual schools.
This study was conducted on the basis of Borg and Gall’s Research and Development method.  Borg and Gall (2003: 569) stated that R & D is an industry-based development model in which the findings of the research are used to design new products and procedures, which then are systematically field-tested, evaluated, and refined until they meet specified criteria of feasibility, quality, or similar standard.
In accordance with the above definition, Borg dan Gall (1983: 772) considered Educational R & D as:  
... a process used to develop and validate educational products. The steps of this process are usually referred to as the R & D cycle, which consists of studying research findings pertinent to the product to be developed, developing the product based on these findings, field testing it in the setting where it will be used eventually, and revising to correct the deficiencies found in the field-testing stage. In more rigorous programs of R & D, this cycle is repeated until the field-test data indicate that the product meets its behaviorally defined objectives.

Borg dan Gall explained (1983: 772) that the term of product do not only refer to material object, such as text books, learning films, and others, but also procedures and processes, such as a learning method, or a method for organizing the learning.
At least, there are three reasons why a model is developed.  First, there have not been any models, second, the models have been available, yet they are not functioning well, and third, as a variant for the existing models which probably have been functioning well.
Borg dan Gall (1983: 775-776) described that the steps in the cycles of R & D in educational research are as follow:
1.        Research and information collecting – Includes review of literature, classroom observations, and preparation of report of state of the art.
2.        Planning – Includes defining skills, stating objectives determining course sequence, and small scale feasibility testing.
3.        Develop preliminary form of product – Includes preparation of instructional material, handbooks, and evaluation devices.
4.        Preliminary field testing – Conducted in from 1 to 3 schools, using 6 to 12 subjects. Interview, observational and questionnaire data collected and analyzed.
5.        Main product revision – Revision of product as suggested by the preliminary field-test results.
6.        Main field testing – Conducted in 5 to 15 schools with 30 to 100 subjects. Quantitative data on subjects’ precourse and postcourse performance are collected. Results are evaluated with respect to course objectives and compared with control group data, when appropriate.
7.        Operational product revision – Revision of product as suggested by main field-test results.
8.        Operational field testing – Conducted in 10 to 30 schools involving 40 to 200 subjects. Interview, observational and questionnaire data collected and analyzed.
9.        Final product revision – Revision of product as suggested by operational field-test results.
10.    Dissemination and implementation – Report on product at professional meetings and in journals. Work with publisher who assumes commercial distribution. Monitor distribution to provide quality control.
However, according to Sukmadinata (2008: 184-191), the ten steps can be simplified by putting them into three phases, namely (1) exploration phase, (2) prototype development phase, and (3) testing phase. 
In the current study, the researcher applied the steps of model development as outlined below.
(1)     Exploration. It was to explore every bit of information related to the current study. The data were presented in descriptions as the basis of needs analysis or need assessment. In line with that description, the current study aimed at examining the quality of the existing model being practiced in every class observed.
(2)     Model Development. It aimed at (1) to propose a model of teaching EFL to ES students in response to the current need of a new model, and (2) to try out the new model in classroom implementation.  In line with the above description, the current study aimed at developing the model, adding and re-energizing the components, before the proposed model was carried out.
(3)     Validation. It was to request some educational experts and practitioners to comment and criticize the newly-developed model for revision and improvement.  In line with that description, the current study aimed at developing the more effective model, which is engaging students’ participation in instructional activities.
Research Approach of the study is qualitative in nature.  The data were collected from the involved people, such as teachers, students, and educational documents.  The data depicted how the educational process ran, how educational documents were implemented, how the educational interaction took place. This approach which is adopted from Samsudi (2009:64-65) stating that all the problems will be meaningful when the study is done qualitatively.
The exploration phase has the research objective of finding the quality of the existing model, and finding the need toward the new model.  The phase was carried out at four ES, while the choice of the schools was based on the result of accreditation level as the result from the survey of Semarang Education Office located at Dr Wahidin street in the year of 2011.  Those, which got A (score ≥ 90), were listed and were taken 4 out of them consisting of 2 state schools and 2 private schools.  The next considerations were accessibility of the location and the agreement from the foundation (for the private schools) and the agreement from the principals of all the schools.
The researcher got the data through observations, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires.  The results of the observation were field notes.  The collected data in this exploration phase of R & D Method consists of two kinds.  The first kind of data is concerning with the quality of the existing model of TEFL in the observed ES which was gathered through class observation and the teaching documents study.  The documents being studied were such as lesson plan (RPP) and review paper.  The arrangement of the students’ seating implemented in the TEFL was also studied 
The second kind of data is the opinion of the English teachers of the observed schools related to the need for developing a new model of Activity based Learning Model for TEFL in ES.  The researcher interviewed four teachers of the observed classes and with four other practitioners, they were also asked to fill in the questionnaire.  To get the information from the users, four students from every school observed were interviewed. 
The four ES observed were (1) SDN Kalicari 01 Semarang (KES 01), (2) SDN Lamper Kidul 02 Semarang (LKES 02), (3) SD Kristen Tri Tunggal Semarang (KTTES)  and (4) SD Pangudi Luhur Xaverius Semarang (PLXES).  The class observations were carried out four to five times: KES01 on 10, 17, 24, and 24 September 2012, LKES01 on 9, 9,11, and 11 October 2012, KTES on 13 and 25 September 2012, 3 and 3   October 2012, and at PLXES on 11 and 21 September 2012 and 2, 2 and 5 October 2012. By observing four or five times, the observer could conclude the general pattern of the classroom activities. 
The objectives of this research were (1) to find out the quality of the existing model for teaching English in ES, (2) to find out the needs toward the new model, (3) to find out how the new model should be developed on the basis of needs analysis. In line with the research objectives, the topics of the interviews done to English teachers were  (1) the model of teaching, (2) the classroom management, (3) the strategy to activate students in instructional activities, (4) the needs to develop the existing model to be a revised and be a better model. The interviews, which involved four English teachers, were carried out during the break-time at teachers’ room, and sometimes at the sitting room of the principals’, or at classroom. 
Four students of each school observed, who were taken randomly, were also interviewed with the topics of (1) the model their teacher usually used, (2) t the need to get new model, (3) being active in the teaching and learning activities.  The interviews were carried out during the class-break, before or after the class observations.
Questionnaires were distributed to the observed teachers and four-colleague teachers to know the information about teachers’ need of a guideline for developing Activity Based Learning Model, a new model that will be much beneficial for the teaching of English to young learners in ES. 
In order to analyze the data collected by different instruments used in this research, the researcher used Constant Comparative method.  There are (1) Open Coding, (2) Axial Coding, (3) Selective Coding (Straus and Corbin (2007).  The explanation of the steps are (1) identifying the unit of information which can be in the forms of ideas, concepts, terms, phrases, keywords. Open coding represents the operations by which data are broken down, examined, compared, conceptualized, and categorized.  (2) In the Axial  coding phase, the researcher made connections among categories, therefore data that the researcher got through class observation, interviews, and questionnaire were connected.  (3) While in the process of selective coding, the categories and subcategories were combined to shape “a storyline” from which they describes what happened in the phenomenon that is being studied.  
To analyze the teaching documents collected for the purpose of knowing the quality of the existing English teaching activity, the researcher used The Nine Gagne’s Theory of Instruction and the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture No 42 in the year of 2007.
Model development phase has research objectives of (1) What were the needs toward the new prototype model? (2) How should Activities-Based Learning model of English teaching in Year 4 of Elementary School be developed on the basis of needs analysis? (3) How were the draft of Guideline constructed? (4) What was the feasibility of the new model in classroom setting?
The draft of Guideline was constructed on the basis of the input from the exploration phase that had been taken place before.  Those were (1) the theories of teaching English to young learners, (2) the evaluation of the implementation of the existing model, (3) the expert consultation. 
The expert involved in the development of the new model was Drs. Muchlas Yusak, Dipl.Appl.Ling., Educational Consultant for School Improvement/Effectiveness, who is now the Head of English Education Department at Unisnu, Jepara.  The new model adopted The Whole Brain Teaching implementation, a model of teaching which invites students to be engaged actively in the learning activities done by teacher.
The implementation were carried out in two stages.  The first stage was the socialization of the model, the practiced of the model by the model designer in classroom setting. At the second stage, the implementations, which were carried out by model teachers, were carried out three times and, were observed by the colleagues as observers.
The class implementations were taken place at PLXES on 14, 17 and 21 May 2013. The location is easy to reach for every participant: expert, curriculum consultant, and practitioners. After every implementation, there was a FGD meeting, discussing on the weaknesses and strengths of the implementation, offering recommendation on good things to be inserted in the model for the next class implementation, therefore the new model was developed every time.
The classes used for the implementation were IVA and IVB.  The model teachers were the English teachers of the school, they were: Esther Dwinastiti Esti Mahanani and Valentina Inneke.

Table 2. 
The Timetable of Class Implementation

Socialization, training of the new model,  implementation of WBT at class setting by model designer
10 May 2013
Model designer/expert, model teacher, practitioners
First Class implementation
14 May ‘13
Model designer/expert, model teacher, practitioner, curriculum counsellor
Second Class implementation
17 May ‘13
Model designer/expert, model teacher, practitioner, headmaster
Third Class implementation
21 May ‘13
Model designer/expert, model teacher, practitioner, curriculum counsellor
Resource:  Researcher’s note 2012

Validation of the guideline was carried out both internally and externally. The internal validation was carried out by the promoters, while the external validation were carried out by experts from Tidar Magelang University. Professor Dr Sukarno, who acted as the University Adviser for Decentralized Basic Education, USAID during 2005-2010, and participated in TOT for National ALFHE (Active Learning for Higher Education in 2010, TOT National Active Learning in School in 2010 and Dr Farikah, MPd, the practitioner of ES English teacher, besides her work as a lecturer in Tidar Magelang University 
They evaluated the model which has been described in the guideline through the evaluation instrument in which every element of each chapter was presented, identified and commented.  First, the validation was carried out by putting the check on a certain number, ranging from 1 to 5 showing the least to the best possible of the items being questioned. Then, second, they put the written comments for the reason why they ticked those particular numbers. 
The Guideline consisted of five chapters. Those are:  chapter 1 about Introduction, chapter 2 about the Definition, Assumption, and Characteristics of Activity Based Learning Model, chapter 3 about the Planning for Learning English using Activity Based Learning Model, chapter 4 about the Application of Activity Based Learning Model, and chapter 5 about the Evaluation using Activity Based Learning Model.
The output of this research will be an Activity Based Learning, a model for Teaching English in elementary school which activates students to repeat the topics in teaching and learning activities,  which are in chunks by teaching them to the friends, through peer teachings.  The model has been validated in terms of feasibility.

Table 3.
The synthesis of Teaching Stages at KES01 and LKES02
Source: Researcher’s note 2012

The Quality of Existing Teaching Activity at The Schools Observed
With the Nine Gagne’s Theory of instruction, the phases of teaching instructional activities at the four school observed were listed. The data of the four classes observed were tabulated in the synthesis tables.  In the Table 3, from the teaching stages at KES 01 and LKES 02, we can see that teachers carried out each stage of Pre-Teaching, While Teaching, and Post Teaching with appropriate instructional activities. The important things here are teacher should keep students motivated and invite them to get involved and active in the instructional activities which has been directed to be free, pleasing, and challenging by the teacher. Further more, the teacher should also be able to manage class well, which enables the teaching can take place.         
The teacher from KES 01 said that she applied Jigsaw model, while the teacher from LKES applied Communicative Approach.  In those learning and teaching instructions, the teachers put the students into groups of 4 or 5, each of which were assigned to do a task. It can be stated that from the activities that the teacher provided for the children, the children get active and learn the materials given.
It can be concluded that teachers considered that assigning tasks for students to do is a way to keep students motivated and be active in the teaching process. This is in line with the statement uttered by the students of LKES02, who said in the interview, that the reason they like English, because the English teacher provides  free, pleasing, and challenging atmosphere for them to intervene, to be active in the instructional activities. They like when the teacher gives them some assignments.  They said that the different and contrary things happen when the class teacher teaches the other lessons.  At LKES02, throughout his teaching activities, the teacher used a mike, which makes his voice loud and clear to every student and this tool seems very helpful for him to manage the class well.

Table 4.
Comparisons among RPPs of Four Schools Observed
Components According to the Government Regulation 41/2007
Identity of the lesson
Standard Competency
Basic Competency
Indicators of achieving Competency
The Objectives of Teaching-Learning
Teaching Material

Time Allocation
Teaching Method
Teaching-Learning Activities

The Evaluation of Learning Outcome
Learning Resources

Source: Data from Researcher 2013
 NA     =      Not Available  A  =  Available

From the other class observations in the two private schools, KTTES and PLXES, the researcher found that KTTES has a method to make the noisy class to be silent and ready to get a lesson from the teacher. The teacher applies a five-zero technique in which when he says “five” the students will respond by bringing their five fingers up and when the teacher says “zero”, the students will fold the arms, put them down on the table and sit silently.  To make the students ready to get a lesson from the teacher,  the teacher will repeat this technique several times until the students really sit silent and be ready to get the lesson.  While in PLXES, teacher explored much varied material to the students, such as watching films in video taken from, singing songs with power point, playing together with games.  By doing so, the teacher invites the students to join in the instructional activities.
Analyzing the result of class observation, it can be noted that teacher has to have certain techniques, varied material to provide supportive and challenging learning atmosphere in class to make students active and be participant in learning activities. Students should be kept active and be participant, enjoy the atmosphere to make them learn the material.

The Analysis of RPP
The Table 4 shows what components of RPP which have been in the RPP of the four schools observed.
As we know that there were two state ES, KES 01 and LKES 02, and two private ES, KTTES and PLXES.  Group one prepared RPP with almost all elements stated by the Regulation of Minister National Education No 41/2007 were there.  Teaching Method was written in the RPP, but when it was read carefully it was not telling about the method.  It only stated the stages that were supposed to be performed by teacher and students.
While the RPPs from KTTES and PLXES were minimalist with only four elements: the Identity of the Lesson, the Teaching Material, the Teaching-Learning Activities, and the Learning Resources. The other elements such as Standard Competency, Basic Competency, The Objective of the Teaching-Learning Activities, The Indicator of the Achievement of Learning Result, Time Allocation, Teaching Method, The Evaluation of Learning Result were not available.
The idea of writing RPP in a complete and systematic way is that when the concerned teacher is away, i.e. the teacher cannot teach, the other teacher who substitutes her will have the idea of what needs to be presented along the teaching and learning period, then, the substitute teacher can replace the concerned teacher.  Furthermore, when it is written in a complete and systematic way, there is no other way, teach it as it is, no major deviations.
Even though, the RPPs of the two observed private schools were minimalist, it revealed that the teachers could encourage learning, involved class to participate actively from the beginning up to the end of the lesson.  Yet, if we refer back to the Regulation of National Education Ministry No 41/2007, the RPP should be written in a more complete and more systematic way.

Model of Teaching
The teachers, as the respondents, mentioned in the interview that they needed a model which enables students to be active in learning new material, while practicing their language skills.  They need a model which involves student’s whole brain in learning, and as it happens, there is not any mental area left for challenging behavior.  Disruptive children break rules, distract classmates, bond with other rebels, retreat into walled silence, are nourished by resisting their instructor’s best intentions because their brains demand activity which the classroom does not provide (Biffle: 2013).  It is clear that the teacher has to prepare materials that will tie up the students with the classroom’s activity.
Some characteristics which color the new model of teaching which is really in accordance with the desire of the teachers for better model are as the following:
1)        Fun and pleasing atmosphere for students to learn; students really like fun and amusing atmosphere
2)        Challenging atmosphere in the instructional activities for students to learn the lesson topics; the challenged students will work better with spirit, since their brain demand activities
3)        Varied teaching material to let students experience full linguistic sense and get fully involved in class activities; students will not get bored
4)        Proper and varied techniques to attract students to follow teacher’s instruction; students are obedient toward teacher’s instruction
5)        Proper and varied techniques to keep class in teacher’s control
6)        Varied and attracting activities to bind students’ attention to class activities
            The next step was to construct the model.  All the above characteristics would be included in the model. The model of teaching was adopted from Power Teaching which is also known as Whole Brain Teaching. The model has been designed by Chris Biffle, who was aided by Chris Rekstad and Jay Vanderfin in 1995 in America.  It is a model which invites students to be engaged in class.  The students will be engaged when they are emotionally involved in lessons that requires seeing, saying, hearing and physically moving.
The guideline for the model was, then, written.  The draft consisted of 5 chapters (1) Introduction, (2) Comprehension, Assumption, Characteristics of the model, (3) Planning, (4) Model of Classroom Implementation, (5) Learning Evaluation, (6) Closing Remarks.  In introduction section discussion is about the background, the objectives, the target, the function, and the output of the draft model for teaching English in ES, especially in  class four.  The output of this subsection is designed from the findings of the exploration, the analysis of the data collected through the instruments of the research and chosen as the model to invite students’ active participation in instructional process at the class setting.  It is used due to the appropriateness with the objectives of this research and the practicality of the model.
To get an overview of the new model, Whole Brain Teaching’s learning strategies, the following are the seven, powerful teaching techniques which are also called The Big Seven (Biffle, 2013):
1)        Class-Yes.  This attention-getter activates the students’ brain.  The part of the brain, which is prefrontal cortex, controls decision making, planning, and focus  of attention.  Students only will learn a little, when the prefrontal cortex is not engaged.
2)        Teach-Okay.  Brain and learning research indicates that students learn the most when they are involved in teaching each other.  By emphasizing energetic, instructional gesturing teacher engages, during Teach-Okay sessions, five of the brain areas: visual cortex (seeing gestures), motor cortex (making gestures), Broca’s area (verbalizing a lesson), Wernicke’s area (hearing a lesson) and the limbic system (giving emotional content to a lesson). 
In this season, teacher must speak briefly before asking students to rehearse the lesson with each other. Short term memory has limited capacity, conversely, the more students repeat lesson to each other, especially while using descriptive gesture, the more students are engaged, and the more thoroughly lessons are embedded in long term memory. 
3)        The Five Classroom Rules. The five classroom rules not only efficiently activate five areas of every students’ brain (visual cortex, motor cortex, Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, and limbic system) but also, because they are frequently rehearsed,  involve the brain’s mirror neurons.  Orderly behavior creates the mirroring of orderly behavior, which caused teachers and students to mirror each other’s happy faces.
4)        The Scoreboard. The scoreboard is rewarding or punishing toward students’ achievement. When the teacher marks a Smiley or a Frowny on the Scoreboard, students feel a small, positive or negative, emotional jolt. By enlivening the marking routine with a “mighty oh yeah” or a “mighty groan” the reward circuitry in the limbic system is activated. 
5)        Hands and Eyes.  When teacher makes an important thing, he wants students to pay attention on what he is saying.  Hands and eyes creates instant silence, eliminating all learning distractions:  the prefrontal cortex takes control of brain activity focusing the visual cortex and the auditory cortex on the instructor’s lesson. 
6)        Switch.  Some students talk easily, often too easily.  Other students fall into the role of passive listeners.  In terms of brain structure, classes are often divided between those who are Brocaians  (speaker) and Wernikites (listeners).  By using Switch, the teacher can easily teach listening skills to the speakers and speaking ability to the listeners
7)        Mirror. Many brain scientists believe that people learn by mirroring the gestures and activities of others. They have identified mirror neurons scattered throughout the brain that are activated by mimicking the behavior they observe.  The  experience in ABL classrooms indicates that when a class mirrors teacher’s gestures and, when appropriate repeats teacher’s words, a powerful learning bond is created as the teacher and students’ visual and motor cortex engage each other.
In the class implementation, the model teacher applied the recommended things based on the result of Focus Group Discussion and they were concerning about: 1) playing video showing a song and the students imitated teacher’s movement following the song, 2)  sitting formation with a group of 3-4 students who were sitting face to face, 3) putting the class into “Boys Group” and “Girls Group”, therefore when the teacher addressed only to the male students, she said, “Boys”, and when she addressed only to female students, she would say: “Girls”, and sometimes the teacher used the usual greeting “Class”, 4) inserting a suitable game in class activities which would make students attracted.
The students’ response when they were asked about the feeling after attending the class implementation for several times showed that they liked the activity, since they felt that they were playing games. They enjoyed the playing atmosphere the teacher built in implementing the new model..

This research has focused in developing a new model for teaching English to ES through R and D process. The result showed that through class observation, teaching documents, and depth interviews with some research phases, the characteristics of the new model can be described and then, the construction of the model can follow.  The output is the guideline of the model.
After some time of class implementation and through the FGD, playing video, reformatting sitting location, changing the calling from “Class” to be “Boys” and “Girls”, and playing a game were implemented with the model. By applying The Big Seven: Class-Yes, Teach-Okay, The Five Classroom Rules, The Scoreboard, Hands and Eyes, Switch, and Mirror class becomes fun and pleasing atmosphere to learn and teacher can attract students to concentrate fully on the topic taught in the instructional process.

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